AEA (American Electronics Association) — Washington D.C. Office, 601 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., North Building, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20004. Telephone: (202) 682-9110. Fax: (202) 682-9111.Santa Clara Office, 5201 Great America Parkway #520, Santa Clara, CA 95054-1120. Telephone: (408) 987-4247. Fax: (408) 986-1247. American Electronics Association is an association for the high-tech industry. www.aeanet.org.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) — 25 West 43rd Street 4th floor, New York, NY 10036. Telephone: (212) 642-4900. Fax: (212) 398-0023. www.ansi.org. ANSI is an organization composed of many special working groups that concentrate on particular technical areas. U.S. representation at the IEC is organized through ANSI. In addition, ANSI is a major distributor of North American and international publications, such as VDE, DIN, IEC, and others.
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BSI (British Standards Institution) — BSI is a major information source. BSI offers excellent reference materials on electrical and electronic standards worldwide. In addition, they have translated many foreign standards into English which are available for purchase. For information, contact BSI Group HQ, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL, United Kingdom. Telephone: +44 (0) 208 996 9000. Fax: +44 (0) 208 996 7001. www.bsi-global.com.• Suggested BSI references:
BS 546: This standard describes a grounded plug system with three round contacts oriented in triangular geometry. BS 546 specifies three different connectors for ratings of 2, 5, and 15A. These connectors are not intermateable because both contact diameters and spacing increase with the increasing current rating. BS 546 is being replaced by BS 1363. However, the 15A rated connector, currently the basis for the Indian standard, is used in several African countries, and in Malaysia on air conditioning units.
BS 1362: Defines the parameters for a fuse that is installed in all British plugs conforming to BS 1363 (see below).
BS 1363: This standards document describes a grounded primary power connector system with solid rectangular contacts. The plug is always fused, and the rating is 13A. This is the current British standard, and it is used in countries like Malaysia for circuits rated up to 13A.
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CEN/CENELEC [Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization)] — 35 Rue de Stassartstraat, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Telephone: (32) 2 519 6871. Fax: (32) 2 519 6919. www.cenelec.org.The CEN/CENELEC 28 member countries include Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungry, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The goal of CEN/CENELEC is to remove trade barriers among its members. After a very complicated standards writing process, which usually revolves around existing IEC standards, an EC Directive is issued. This results in documents called “ENs” (European Norms) and “HDs” (Harmonizing documents). All members are required to accept their use, instead of their own national standards. One special certification scheme for cables and cords illustrates the effect very well. When cable is certified and marked HAR, it is mandatory for all member countries to accept its use, regardless of what member country actually did the certifying. Thus, a trade barrier is removed.• Suggested CENELEC references:
Note: European Standards may be purchased from ANSI or BSI.
EN ISO 9000: International Quality Management & Quality Assurance Series
EN 60127: Miniature fuses
EN 60335: Safety of household or similar electrical appliances
EN 60601: Medical Electrical Equipment
EN 60950: Safety of Information Technology Equipment
EN 61010: Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use
HD-21: The harmonized standard for PVC insulated cables and flexible cords with rated voltage up to and including 450/750V
HD-22: Harmonized document for rubber insulated cables and flexible cords with rated voltage up to and including 450/750V
HD-472-S1: Nominal Voltages for Public Low Voltage Distribution. Standardizes on 230V for 2 & 3-wire products, 400V for 4 wire
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CSA (The Canadian Standards Association) — 5060 Spectrum Way, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6. Telephone: (416) 747-4000. Fax: (416) 747-2473. www.csa.ca.• Suggested CSA references:
Canadian Standards Association Catalog, published yearly and available directly from CSA.
C22.2 No. 0: General Requirements Canadian Electrical Code Part II
C22.2 No. 0.3: Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables
C22.2 No. 0.4: Bonding and Grounding of Electrical Equipment (Protective Grounding)
C22.2 No. 8: Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Filters
C22.2 No. 14: Industrial Control Equipment for Use in Ordinary (Non-Hazardous) Locations
C22.2 No. 21: cord Sets and Power Supply cords
C22.2 No. 31: Switchgear Assem., Industrial Products
C22.2 No. 39: Fuseholder Assemblies
C22.2 No. 42: General Use Receptacles, Attachment plugs, and Similar Wiring Devices
C22.2 No. 49: Flexible cords and Cables
C22.2 No. 59.1: Fuses (Both Plug and Cartridge-Enclosed Types)
C22.2 No. 59.2: Supplemental Fuses
C22.2 No. 94: Special Purpose Enclosures
C22.2 No. 60601: Medical Electrical Equipment
C22.2 No. 158: Terminal Blocks
C22.2 No. 182.1: Industrial Type Special Use Attachment plugs, Receptacles, and Connectors
C22.2 No. 182.2: Industrial, Locking Type Special Use Attachment plugs, Receptacles, and Connectors
C22.2 No. 182.3: Special Use Attachment plugs, Receptacles, and Connectors
C22.2 No. 220: Information Processing and Business Equipment
C22.2 No. 60950: Safety of Information Technology Equipment
Compliance Engineering Magazine — Canon Communications LLC, 11444 W. Olympic Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90064. Telephone: (310) 445-4200. Fax: (310) 445-4299. www.ce-mag.com
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UL International DEMKO A/S — Lyskaer 8, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark. Danish testing agency. Telephone: (45) 44 85 6565. Fax: (45) 44 85 6500. www.ul-europe.de.• Suggested DEMKO references:
Afsnit 107: The Danish Standards: “Household plugs and plugs for Special Danish Systems, Part 107.”
DIN [Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Standardization Institute)] — Burggrafenstrasse 6, 10787 Berlin, Germany. DIN does not perform any testing. Telephone: (49) 30 26 010-0. Fax: (49) 302601-1231. www.din.de.• Suggested DIN references:
DIN 41571: 5 x 20mm quick-acting, low- and medium-time and time-lag fuse-links
DIN 41660: 5 x 20mm quick-acting, high-breaking capacity fuses
DIN 41661: 5 x 20mm quick-acting, low-breaking capacity fuses
DIN 41664: Describes a German standard post-type fuseholder with a screw cap
DIN 41669: Fuseholders
DIN 46244: Equipment-mounted male quick disconnect
DIN 46247: Uninsulated female quick disconnect for sizes 4.8, 6.3, and 9.5mm
DIN 46248: 6.3mm uninsulated male quick disconnect
DIN 46249: Uninsulated male quick disconnect
DIN 46330: Uninsulated short female quick disconnect
DIN 46342: Straight and angle locking male quick disconnect
DIN 46345: Female quick disconnect with male quick disconnect for 6.3mm sizeDIN standards are primarily available in German. However, translations of both standards and lists of standards are available in English from BSI, IHS Global Engineering documents and VDE. (See each of these as they appear in alphabetical order for contact information.)
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European Directives —
Council Directive (93/68/EEC) amending such directives as the low voltage and EMC Directives
Conformity Assessment and Rules for Affixing the CE Mark (Council Decision 93/465/EEC)
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (89/336/EEC)
Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC)
Machinery Directive (89/392/EEC)
Medical Device Directive (93/42/EEC)
Product Safety Directive (92/59/EEC)
Product Liability Directive (85/374/EEC)
Telecommunications Terminal Equipment (91/263/EEC)
Toys (88/378/EEC, Amended by 93/68/EEC)To obtain European Directives contact:EuroPort — 29 Waterman Road, Gloucester, MA 01930. VDE, IEC, EN, ISO standards in English. Telephone: (978) 282-8895. Fax (978) 282-9788. www.europort.com.
IHS Global Engineering documents (div. of Information Handling Services) — 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112. Source for UL, VDE, DIN, British standards, ISO, and other international agency documents. Telephone: (800) 854-7179, (303) 397-7956. Fax: (303) 397-2740. www.global.ihs.com.
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IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) — 3, Rue de Varembé, P.O. 131, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland. Telephone: (41) 22 919 02 11. Fax: (41) 22 919 03 00. www.IEC.ch.IEC writes and distributes consensus standards created through an elaborate network of worldwide committees made up of experts in the areas of concern. In effect, an IEC standard is a treaty, signed by many nations to foster international standardization. The standards on electrical products and components include references to safety and performance. The IEC does not perform any testing; this function is left to the national testing agencies. National standards are frequently based on IEC publications. Inquiries regarding IEC standards may also be made to the U.S. National Committee of the IEC, American National Standards Institutes (see previous reference to ANSI for address).• Suggested IEC references:
Note: When ordering IEC publications, always request a list of all amendments and supplements. Sometimes they will be quite detailed, so carefully check what you need before ordering.IEC Catalog of Publications
IEC Multilingual Dictionary of Electricity
IEC 60065: Audio, Video and Similar Electronic Apparatus—Safety Requirements
IEC 60068-2-7: Concerns basic environmental testing procedures for electronic components and electronic equipment. Section 2–6 refers to vibration tests
IEC 60083: “plugs and sockets for Domestic and Similar Use”
IEC 60127: “Cartridge Fuse-Links for Miniature Fuses.” Several supplements have been published
IEC 60227: “Polyvinyl Chloride Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750V”
IEC 60228: “Conductors of Insulated Cables”
IEC 60245: “Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages up to and including 450/750V”
IEC 60269: “Low Voltage Fuses”
IEC 60291: “Fuse Definitions”
IEC 60309: “plugs, Socket-Outlets and Couplers for Industrial Purposes” (High power connectors)
IEC 60320: “Appliance Couplers for Household and Similar General Purposes”
IEC 60384-14: “Sectional Specification: Fixed Capacitors for Electromagnetic Interference Suppression. Selection of Methods of Test and General Requirements” Supersedes IEC 161 (1965)
IEC 60417: “Graphic Symbols for use on Equipment”
IEC 60529: “Classification of Degrees of Protection by Enclosures”(IP Code System)
IEC 60536: “Classification of Electrical and Electronic Equipment with Regard to Protection Against Electric Shock”
IEC 60601-1: “Safety of Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements”
IEC 60664: “Insulation Coordination Within Low-Voltage Systems“
IEC 60799: “cord Sets”
IEC 60811: “Test Methods for Insulating and Sheathing of Electric Cables”
IEC 60947: “Low Voltage Switchgear and Control Gear”
IEC 60950: “Safety of Information Technology Equipment including Business Equipment”
IEC 61058: “Switches for Appliances”
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IECEE—CB Scheme is the same as the old CEE—CB Scheme that issued CEE standards. This is a worldwide program for reciprocal recognition of safety testing results of electrical equipment, among participating countries. Over 30 countries now have membership on the IECEE, including Japan, all members of CEN/CENELEC, and some Eastern European countries. The IECEE is headquartered at the IEC, in Geneva (see IEC for address). A bulletin covering many issues including national deviations from the IECEE standards is available from the IEC. www.cbscheme.com.
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IPSN (International Product Safety News) — A subscription newsletter focusing on product safety compliance. It features news, information, and resources of agencies such as UL, CSA, VDE, IEC, NRTLs and TUV. P. O. Box 1561, 166 Congdom St. East, Middletown, CT 06457-8061. Telephone: (860) 344-1651. Fax (860) 346-9066. www.safetylink.com.Back to the top
ISO (International Standards Organization) — 1, rue de Varembré, Case Postale 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. Telephone: (41) 22 749 01 11. Fax (41) 22 733 34 30. www.iso.ch.ISO 9000 Series of Standards: International Quality Management & Quality Assurance.ISO 9241: A 13 part standard for ergonomics (Human Factors) of equipment. This controls requirements like markings on switches, labels, product color and many other design aspects dealing with human factors. (American version is ANSI-ASQC Q9—available from ANSI.)
ISO 14001: Environmental Management Systems.
Standards Australia — 286 Sussex Street, Sydney, NSW 2000, G. P. O. Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia. Standards Australia writes standards for Australia. It does not perform any testing. Telephone: (61) 2 8206 6000. www.standards.org.au.• Suggested Standards Australia references:
Australia/New Zealand Standards:
AS/NZS 3100: Approval and Test Specifications for Definitions and General Requirements for Electrical Materials & Equipment
AS/NZS 3112: Approval/Test Specifications for plugs & Plug sockets
AS/NZS 3191: Electric Flexible cords.
AS/NZS 3260: Safety of Information Technology Equipment
AS/NZS 3302: Particular Requirements for Electric FansBack to the top
SNZ (Standards New Zealand) — 155 The Terrace Private Bag 2439, Wellington, New Zealand. Telephone: (64) 4 498 59 90. Fax: (64) 4 498 59 94. www.standards.co.nz.• Suggested SNZ references:
New Zealand Standards current Catalog lists standards.
Standards magazine, published monthly.
New Zealand Buyers guide includes a list of products that carry the New Zealand certification mark.
See combined AS/NZS Standards listed above.
Intertek ETL SEMKO — Intertek SEMKO AB, Torshamnsgatan 43 Box 1103 164 22, Kista, Sweden. Intertek ETL SEMKO is the national testing agency of Sweden. Telephone: (46) 8 750 00 00. Fax: (46) 8 750 60 30. www.sweden.etlsemko.com.• Suggested Intertek ETL SEMKO references:
A list of approved electrical equipment and a list of test specifications (both in Swedish) are available from Intertek ETL SEMKO.Back to the top
UL (Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.) — 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062. Telephone: (847) 272-8800. Fax: (847) 272-8129. www.ul.com. Go to www.comm-2000.comfor UL standards.UL is a testing agency in the United States with headquarters at Northbrook, Illinois, and additional testing facilities at Santa Clara, California; Melville, New York; Research Triangle, North Carolina; Camas, Washington; Denmark (DEMKO A/S); and at various locations in Asia. UL maintains a Client Advisor office at each facility. They will guide you on all of your UL safety compliance needs. UL publishes an annual “Standards for Safety” catalog of publications of standards and proposed editions of new standards. Informative brochures on UL are available such as “Testing for Public Safety” on the organization, purposes, procedures, and services of UL. Individual UL standards are published separately (see below).UL standards are available from IHS Global Engineering documents.
• Suggested UL references:
The Directory of Recognized Components, in 3 volumes
UL 62: Flexible cord and Fixture Wire
UL 94: Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials
UL 98: Enclosed Switches
UL 198G: Fuses for Supplementary Overcurrent Protection
UL 498: Attachment plugs and Receptacles
UL 512: Fuseholders
UL 746: Polymeric Materials
UL 796: Printed-Wiring Boards
UL 817: cord Sets and Power Supply cords
UL 1054: Special-Use Switches
UL 1077: Supplementary Protectors for Use in Electrical Equipment
UL 1244: Electrical and Electronic Measuring and Testing Equipment
UL 1283: Electromagnetic Interference Filters
UL 1459: Telephone Equipment
UL 1581: Reference Standard for Electrical Wires, Cables, and Flexible cords
UL 60950: Safety of Information Technology Equipment
UL 60601: Medical Electrical Equipment and Part 1 Gen Requirements for Safety
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U.S. Department of Commerce — Office of European Community Affairs, International Trade Administration, Rm H-3036, Washington D.C. 20230. Telephone: (202) 482-2000. Source of much national and international data. The International Trade Administration Office of Export Promotion is a division of the U.S. Department of Commerce which specifically offers assistance to businesses interested in exporting their products. www.doc.gov.Suggested references from the Department of Commerce:
“Electric Current Abroad,” a booklet describing plug and socket patterns in use throughout the world based on a survey of U.S. consulates abroad
“U.S Industrial Outlook,” published annually
“Foreign Business Practices, Materials on Practical Aspects of Exporting, International Licensing and Investing”
VDE (Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker) — German national testing agency. VDE issues standards in the form of regulations (VDE-Bestimmungen), leaflets (VDE Druckschriften), instructions (VDE Merkblaetter), and guiding principles (VDE Richtlinien).Detailed information on the respective conditions to be complied within the case of approval tests and test reports, the submission of applications, etc. may be obtained free from VDE-Prufstelle, Merianstrasse 28, 63069, Offenbach, Germany. Telephone: (49) 69 8306 0. Fax: (49) 69 8306 555. www.vde.com.
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