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Exporting to the European Union

Introduction    
Germany Romania Croatia
United Kingdom Czech Republi Lithuania
France Greece Slovenia
Italy Portugal Luxembourg
Spain Denmark Latvia
Poland Hungary Estonia
Netherlands Finland Cyprus
Belgium Ireland Malta
Sweden Slovakia Conclusion
Austria Bulgaria World Comparison Rankings

Introduction

Exporting to the EU (European Union) can offer excellent trade opportunities in the global market. In fact, in terms of population, the EU is about 50% bigger than the United States. Consisting of 28 countries, the EU can be viewed as an integrated market overall, but it needs to be noted that there are also individual requirements within each country.

Within the EU is an executive body called the European Commission which represents all of the European Union. Among its main responsibilities are proposing legislation, enforcing European law, and representing the EU outside of Europe.

The EU is also a Customs Union which consists of member countries who have formed a single region for customs purposes. Goods that have been imported legally can circulate throughout the EU with no further customs checks. To learn more about the customs regulations, among the sources to consult are the European Commission Export Helpdesk and European Commission Taxation and Customs Union. Conducting due diligence in accordance with all of the regulations is essential.

Some products may require safety testing and certification for this market. While not all products are required to have a CE mark, others do require one. When affixing the CE mark to a product, a manufacturer affirms that the product meets the necessary requirements and can be sold throughout the EU.

There are certain EU regulations that need to be followed, so it’s important to know what is required. Among them are:

  • REACH is the European regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals. The European Commission works closely with ECHA (European Chemicals Agency) in the implementation of this regulation.
  • RoHS stands for Restriction of Hazardous Substances. It restricts the use of certain hazardous materials found in electrical and electronic products.
  • WEEE stands for Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment. WEEE requires the treatment, recovery, and recycling of electric and electronic equipment.

Choosing to export globally needs to be a well-researched decision. Exporting to countries in the European Union can be very beneficial, but separate market entry strategies per individual countries are needed. Among the resources to consult for more information are the European Commission, the United States Commercial Service, and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

The following European Union countries are featured in this white paper: Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, Poland, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Romania, Czech Republic, Greece, Portugal, Denmark, Hungary, Finland, Ireland, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Luxembourg, Latvia, Estonia, Cyprus, and Malta.

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Exporting to Germany

GERMANY
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
80,996,685 18
Actual GDP PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$3.227 trillion 6
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$39,500 29

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As the largest economy in Europe and one of the largest in the world, Germany has significant influence in the global market. Due to its central location within the boundaries of the European Union, trade volume, and a large number of consumers, Germany is a prime marketplace for worldwide trade.

While there may be a “buy local” outlook, offering products and services that are unique and of high quality, along with local after-sales support, can be part of a successful market strategy. Small and medium-sized enterprises are an important part of the economic system. Within the country, there are regional differences that need to be recognized and marketed to. Companies choosing to use an agent or distributor need to make sure that the contracts are in agreement with the EU and member state laws.

Another market strategy includes the international trade fairs that are hosted in Germany for almost every business sector. Whether participating or researching possible markets, it is highly recommended that companies take advantage of business opportunities offered through this kind of trade promotion. Advertising is another important element. However, it should be noted that it is essential to know what the advertising rules are, so working with a German business partner or an advertising agency when planning an ad campaign is strongly advised.

Knowledge of German business etiquette is essential. For example, find out the preferred times for appointments and make them in advance. Punctuality is crucial as is knowing the proper way to greet people.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about market entry strategies, doing business in Germany, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United States Commercial Service, the United Kingdom Trade and Investment, and the Germany Trade and Investment.

Located in Western Europe, Germany joined the European Union in 1958 and was one of the original EU member countries. German is the main language spoken, although many also speak English.

In Germany, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Germany:
www.gov.uk
www.export.gov/germany
www.gtai.de

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Exporting to the United Kingdom

UNITED KINGDOM
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
63,742,977

23

Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$2.387 trillion 9
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$37,300 34

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As one of the largest international markets, the United Kingdom offers many trade opportunities. As a member of the European Union, the UK is often considered as one of the gateways to other EU markets.

Market entry strategies include evaluating potential business associates and choosing a reputable local distributor who will provide a positive image of the company. A long-term commitment is strongly encouraged as is being flexible with market changes. It’s important to realize cultural differences and adapt accordingly.

Knowing the business culture will help to enhance the success of a company doing business in the UK. It’s advised to have personal contact with business associates. Timely recognition of correspondence, being on time for appointments, and formal business relations are also part of this business climate.

There are a number of resources to consult for guidance to enter the market, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United Kingdom Trade and Investment and the United States Commercial Service.

Located in Northern Europe, the United Kingdom joined the European Union in 1973. While English is the official language, there are a number of communities in the UK whose primary language is not English. For example, Welsh is spoken by some in Wales and Gaelic is spoken by some in Scotland. Within London, there is also a variety of languages spoken.

In the United Kingdom, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the United Kingdom plug.

Sources for the United Kingdom:
www.gov.uk
www.export.gov/unitedkingdom

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Exporting to France

FRANCE
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
66,259,012 22
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$2.276 trillion 10
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$35,700 39

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Notable trade and investment opportunities exist in France, making this country a key player in the global market. With a modern business climate and wide-ranging consumer base, France works to promote economic growth.

France is a developed nation with a diverse and extensive consumer base. While the French market is similar to others in a number of ways, it should be noted that French customers have their own unique tastes and knowledge of those preferences is essential in doing business with them. While a favorable business environment exists, careful planning of the market entry strategies is important to a company’s success.

When considering the French business culture, know that the emphasis is on courtesy and formality. Appointments and titles are to be respected. It’s important to know the correct way to correspond as well as how to open and close a business meeting. Discover ways to enhance good working relations.

There are a number of resources available to assist a company with market research and market entry strategies, including the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment. There is also a reference guide called “Doing Business in France” that is created by the Business France Agency.

Located in Western Europe, France joined the European Union in 1958 and was one of the original EU member countries. While many business people may speak English, French is the official language in the country. It is recommended that written information, such as product literature, be in French.

In France, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug with a French/Belgian socket.

Sources for France:
www.export.gov/france
www.gov.uk
http://sayouitofrance-innovation.com

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Exporting to Italy

ITALY
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
61,680,122 24
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$1.805 trillion 12
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking

$29,600

51

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Many companies in Italy are starting to expand their markets globally, so there are numerous business opportunities to be explored.

Market entry strategies include finding the right individual distributor or business partner to help create a network of relationships. Learn what the local business guidelines and regulations are. Companies need to make sure that all contracts made are in agreement with the EU and member state national laws. Find the appropriate legal advice to assist with that. Italy also hosts a number of trade shows which draws worldwide interest in a number of areas.

Knowledge of Italian business customs is important. Learn what is considered key to good company relationships, such as attire, making and keeping appointments, how to properly address people, and the importance of establishing positive business associations. Keep to all promised delivery dates where possible and follow-up with after-sales service.
                                                                                                              
There are a variety of resources available to learn more about market entry strategies, doing business in Italy, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Southern Europe, Italy joined the European Union in 1958 and was one of the original EU member countries. The official language is Italian. Even though some large companies may have communication in various languages, correspond in Italian to begin with. This helps to prevent possible misinterpretations. Company literature and other business information should be printed in Italian.

In Italy, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Italian plug.

Sources for Italy:
www.export.gov/italy
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Spain

SPAIN
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
47,737,941 29
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$1.389 trillion 15
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$30,100 47

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As a significant market in the European Union, Spain offers many business opportunities with notable strengths and benefits.

There are a number of regional markets within Spain that come together in Madrid and Barcelona. Finding a local representative who can be a valuable partner in providing local and regional connections can be a first step in exploring business opportunities in Spain. It’s recommended to obtain legal advice to assist with the process. The ICEX Spain Trade and Investment offers “Invest in Spain” as a tool for companies to use, plus a “Guide to Business in Spain” is available. Spain may also be a gateway to expanding potential markets in the Latin American and Caribbean countries.

Knowledge of business customs is essential as well as knowing the culture. Learn how to open and close a business meeting as well as what the appropriate greeting should be. Professional business attire is important. Discover what good business relationships should include, such as face-to-face meetings.

A variety of resources is available to consult for more information about market entry strategies, doing business in Spain, business customs, and import/export requirements. Among them are the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Southern Europe, Spain joined the European Union in 1986. Spanish is the main language to communicate in, even though certain regions in Spain have official second languages. Also, while there are business people who speak English, it’s best to have correspondence and company literature in Spanish.

In Spain, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Spain:
www.export.gov/spain
www.gov.uk
www.investinspain.org

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Exporting to Poland

POLAND
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
38,346,279 35
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$814 billion 22
Actual GDP (per capita)*

GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$21,100 69

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Emerging as an active market in the European Union, Poland offers various trade opportunities with positive potential for markets.

Targeting specific niches is one market entry strategy to use, along with follow-up promotion and sales support. It should be noted that there is a wide population distribution in Poland between urban and rural. Personal contacts and finding a local agent or distributor are other potential market entry strategies. Pricing is a significant factor when offering a product or service in Poland.

Knowing business customs that are acceptable in Poland will enhance a company’s chance for success. For example, know what is proper when greeting someone, including the proper way to shake hands and address a person, especially when meeting for the first time. Have a good supply of business cards to distribute. Also know what is acceptable as business hours as well as when the Polish holidays are—this will assist in choosing the best time to schedule meetings. Business attire is generally recommended to be formal.

Different resources, such as the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment, are available to find out more information about doing business in Poland, market entry strategies, business customs, and import/export requirements. Another resource is the Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency’s “Invest in Poland.”

Located in Eastern Europe, Poland joined the European Union in 2004. Polish is the official language. Since all communication should be in Polish, it’s recommended to use quality translators for conducting business.

In Poland, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Poland:
www.export.gov/poland
www.gov.uk
www.paiz.gov.pl/en

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Exporting to the Netherlands

NETHERLANDS
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
16,877,351 66
Actual GDP (PPP)*

GDP World Ranking
$699.7 billion 24
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$43,300 18

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

A prime location for importing and exporting due to having Europe’s largest port, the Netherlands offers many business opportunities and can be a significant trade link to the rest of the European Union.

The Netherlands has maximized market opportunities to become one of the top trading countries in the world. For those looking to begin exporting in Europe, this country can be one of the best places to start. One suggested market entry strategy is to use an agent or distributor who is knowledgeable in international trade. Because the Netherlands is not a huge country, many distributors may want an exclusive distributorship, which can be to a company’s advantage. When making an agreement with an agent or distributor, make sure it is in accordance with the EU and member state laws. Visits to the country are also recommended.

Learning about the Dutch business culture will enhance business relationships. The Dutch market can be competitive and the business community tends to be conservative. It should be noted that there is an emphasis on courtesy. Promptness in answering business requests (e.g. price quotations and orders) is important as is punctuality to all appointments. Using time efficiently is highly valued while spontaneity is not.

To find out more information about market entry strategies, Dutch business customs, and import/export requirements, resources include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment. Another resource is the Dutch Chamber of Commerce—Kamer van Koophandel. This Chamber provides information on starting a business, international trade, and information on the Business Register.

Located in Western Europe, the Netherlands joined the European Union in 1958 and is one of the original EU member countries. While Dutch is the official language, English is also commonly understood within much of the business community.

In the Netherlands, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for the Netherlands:
www.export.gov/netherlands
www.gov.uk
www.kvk.nl/english

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Exporting to Belgium

BELGIUM
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
10,449,361 84
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$421.7 billion 33
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$37,800 31

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As a multilingual country, Belgium offers diverse market opportunities. With several major ports and high-quality infrastructure, this country can be an important connection to exporting in the European Union.

In doing the market research for Belgium, it needs to be noted that the country has two distinct regions—Dutch-speaking Flanders in the north and French-speaking Wallonia in the south with the Belgian capital of Brussels being bilingual. Within the country, there are also a small number of German speakers. The headquarters of the European Union, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), and a number of international associations and corporations are all located in Brussels.

One suggested market entry strategy is to use a distributor or an agent. It’s important to make sure all agreements follow the EU and member state laws. Belgium’s location can also contribute to making it be a good place to initially enter exporting into the European Union.

To enhance the success of the company, it is highly recommended to learn the business customs within Belgium. Make business appointments and be on time for meetings. Building good business relationships are important as Belgians typically prefer to do business with people known to them.

There are a number of resources available to assist a company with market research and market entry strategies, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Western Europe, Belgium joined the European Union in 1958 and was one of the original EU member countries. There are three national languages in Belgium: Dutch, French, and German. Dutch (also called Flemish) is the primary language in Flanders, the northern region of Belgium, while French is mostly spoken in Wallonia, the southern region of Belgium. Those who live in small area near Germany speak German as their main language. Because documents may need to be filed in more than one language, it’s recommended to use professional translators when needed. English is also spoken and understood throughout much of the country.

In Belgium, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug with the French/Belgian socket.

Sources for Belgium:
www.export.gov/belgium
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Sweden

SWEDEN
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
9,723,809 91
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$393.8 billion 35
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$40,900 26

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Sweden is one of the Nordic countries which also includes Denmark, Finland, and Norway. Together these countries have diversified trade markets and receptive business environments.

Sweden is the largest among the four Nordic countries. As a leader in research and development, new advanced technologies are encouraged which helps to make it a good place to use as a test market. A market strategy to consider is working with an agent or distributor. Evaluate potential partners carefully and from the beginning, visit the country to establish a good business relationship with that person. Demonstrate the desire for a long-term commitment and make sure all agreements that are made are in accordance with the European Union and member state laws.

It’s important to note details regarding cultural differences so determine what is acceptable in Sweden. Scheduling and punctuality are crucial. Meetings are expected to begin on time and follow the agenda set. Learn what is acceptable for business attire and when it’s appropriate to give gifts. Have business cards available for distribution.

To discover more about the business customs in Sweden, market entry strategies, and import/export requirements, resources to consult include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Northern Europe, Sweden joined the European Union in 1995. While Swedish is the official language of the country, English is also widely spoken and used frequently within the business community.

In Sweden, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Sweden:
www.export.gov/sweden
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Austria

AUSTRIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
8,223,062 95
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$361 billion 38
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$42,600 22

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Austria plays a key part in the global market as it offers strong trading opportunities, a well-diversified economy, and favorable economic conditions. This country can also serve as a link between western and eastern European markets.

To enter the Austrian market, a suggested entry strategy is to choose a local distributor or agent with market awareness and a network of connections and to make personal visits. Since Austria is a member of the European Union, it is essential to make sure all agreements are in accordance with EU and member state laws. A number of organizations have their headquarters in Austria, as do many other internationally-based companies. Austria’s location also allows the opportunity to reach a large number of consumers in the region.

Discover what the business customs of Austria are. The business environment tends to be relatively formal. Learn what is expected when making appointments, the proper way to greet people, and the proper way to use titles in a person’s name. Research how Austrians tend to view the buyer-seller relationship and what is accepted in sales approaches. Showing awareness of the Austrian way of life can help to enhance the success of doing business in that country.

To assist with market research, market entry strategies, business customs, and import/export requirements, there are a number of resources to consult, including the United Kingdom Trade and Investment, the United States Commercial Service, and the Wirtschaftskammer Österreich (Austrian Economic Chambers).

Located in Western Europe, Austria joined the European Union in 1995. German is the official language of Austria. While English is spoken by many within the business community, it is recommended to have product literature and correspondence be in German.

In Austria, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Austria:
www.export.gov/austria
www.gov.uk
www.wko.at

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Exporting to Romania

ROMANIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
21,729,871 58
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$288.5 billion 45
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$14,400 94

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As a relatively new member state of the European Union, Romania has promising possibilities to expand business opportunities, but a thorough assessment of the market is needed.

Romania’s location within Europe helps to make it a potential trade link with countries within and around the EU. One suggested market entry strategy is to find a local business partner, such as a distributor, or through a joint venture. It’s essential to conduct due diligence and market research. Retaining reputable legal and financial counsel is also strongly advised.

Knowledge of acceptable business customs in Romania is important. For example, discover how to greet people and how to distribute business cards. Learn the acceptable dress attire as well as the accepted way to address people.

For assistance with market research and market entry strategies, doing business in Romania, and import/export requirements, there are a variety of resources to consult, including the United States Commercial Service and United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Eastern Europe, Romania joined the European Union in 2007. Romanian is the official language, but English, French, and German are also spoken.

In Romania, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Romania:
www.export.gov/romania
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to the Czech Republic

CZECH REPUBLIC
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
10,627,448 83
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$285.6 billion 46
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$26,300 56

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As one of the newer European Union members, the Czech Republic offers trade opportunities for companies looking to expand their exporting choices.

For those who are experienced exporters, the Czech Republic can potentially be a prospective market within the EU. It’s important to perform extensive market research. To enhance success within this market, it is recommended to find a local agent or distributor and establish a good relationship. When determining the agent/distributor agreement, using a reputable legal counsel is also advised.

Formality tends to be a characteristic of many of the Czech people. It is suggested to begin by developing a few good business contacts and carefully build a network. Czechs prefer to get to know the person they are dealing with first. Due to the small size of the country where industry leaders know each other, it’s important for a company to create and maintain a good reputation. Knowledge of proper meeting etiquette and the acceptable way to greet people is crucial.

For more information about doing business in the Czech Republic, market entry strategies, and import/export requirements, there are a number of resources to look at, including the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Eastern Europe, the Czech Republic joined the European Union in 2004. While Czech is the official language in the country, many also speak Russian, German, and English. As Czech can be a hard language to learn, it is recommended to use quality interpreters.

In the Czech Republic, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug with a French/Belgian socket.

Sources for Czech Republic:
www.export.gov/czechrepublic
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Greece

GREECE
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
10,775,557 81
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$267.1 billion 51
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$23,600 63

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Even though there may be challenges in the Greek market, there are also business opportunities available for companies wishing to export to this country. As a member of the European Union, it can also be a trade link to other regions.

The geographic location of Greece can be beneficial to reaching customers in the region. One suggested way to enter the market successfully is to find a knowledgeable, experienced local partner with an established business network. A market plan should be created that focuses on doing business in Greece and all business agreements need to be in compliance with EU and member state laws. To assist with starting a business, there are several websites to consult, including “Start Up Greece” (Greek Ministry for Development) and “Doing Business in Greece” (Invest in Greece Agency).

Knowledge of business customs is essential. Attending to business in person in the country is strongly recommended. Learn the customary business greeting, along with the importance of business cards and when to exchange gifts.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about market entry strategies, doing business in Greece, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Southern Europe, Greece joined the European Union in 1981. While Greek is the language spoken by the vast majority of the people in Greece, many in the business community speak English. It is suggested, however, to have product literature in Greek.

In Greece, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Greece:
www.export.gov/greece
www.gov.uk
www.startupgreece.gov.gr
www.enterprisegreece.gov.gr

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Exporting to Portugal

PORTUGAL
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
10,813,834 80
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$243.3 billion 54
Actual GDP(per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$22,900 64

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As a part of the European Union, Portugal offers global trade opportunities within the country and the EU, as well as serving as a potential entry point to other Portuguese speaking markets, also known as the Lusophone markets.

Portugal has a long history of being involved in international trade. Market entry strategies may include working with a local distributor or partner, forming a joint venture, or exporting directly. Establishing the proper business network is strongly recommended. In setting up any kind of agreement, companies need to make sure they are in accordance with EU and member state laws.

Knowledge of business customs will help to enhance a company’s success. Take the time to establish solid business relationships as personal contacts are essential. Realize that the business community can be considered formal. It’s important to use appropriate titles and learn the proper way to greet others. The focus is on courtesy, punctuality, and thoroughness.

To assist in learning more about market entry strategies, doing business in Portugal, business customs, and import/export requirements, there are a variety of resources to consult. Among them are the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Southern Europe, Portugal joined the European Union in 1986. Portuguese is spoken in Portugal, but many also speak several additional languages with English being one of them. English is generally accepted within the business community.

In Portugal, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Portugal:
www.export.gov/portugal
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Denmark

DENMARK
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
5,569,077 115
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$211.3 billion 55
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$37,800 32

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Many trade opportunities exist within the country of Denmark. It is a member of the European Union and one of the Nordic countries, which also includes Sweden, Finland, and Norway. While these countries have individual trade markets, they also create an excellent business connection together.

Market entry strategies include working with a local agent or distributor or establishing a branch office. Whatever option is chosen, make sure that all agreements follow the EU and member state laws. Long-term commitments are important. Many are conservative in nature and want products that have value. There are several resources to assist in beginning a business. Among them are the “Guide to Establishing a Business in Denmark” through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark and the “Practical Guide – How to Start Up a Business in Greater Copenhagen” through Copenhagen Capacity.

Knowing what the business customs in Denmark are contributes to a company’s success. Learn how to address people, the typical dress code, and the usual approach to business meetings. Know that punctuality is essential, determine what normal working hours are, and when to schedule business meetings.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about market entry strategies, doing business in Denmark, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in northern Europe, Denmark joined the European Union in 1973. The official language of Denmark is Danish, but many speak English as a second language. German, French, and Spanish are also spoken within the country.

In Denmark, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Danish plug.

Sources for Denmark:
www.export.gov/denmark
www.gov.uk
www.investindk.com
www.copcap.com

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Exporting to Hungary

HUNGARY
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
9,919,128 90
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$196.6 billion 57
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$19,800 71

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Hungary is a growing economy within the European Union. With a central location in Europe, it offers many trade opportunities through a welcoming business environment.

One market entry strategy includes finding an agent or a distributor who has positive business connections throughout the region. Market research is highly recommended, as is making personal visits to the country. When creating an agreement with an agent or distributor, make sure it meets all EU and member state laws.

Knowledge of the Hungarian business customs is important, such as what the typical business attire is and the importance of business cards and what should be on them. Knowing how to properly greet people and learning some basic phrases in Hungarian can also help to enhance a company’s success.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about market entry strategies and doing business in Hungary. Among them are the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment. Other resources include the Hungarian Investment Promotion Agency and the Hungarian National Trade House.

Located in Eastern Europe, Hungary joined the European Union in 2004. While Hungarian is the official language in Hungary, several other languages (such as English and German) are also spoken. Within the business community English is accepted, but it needs to be noted that many may not speak it, so using a quality interpreter is recommended.

In Hungary, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Hungary:
www.export.gov/hungary
www.gov.uk
www.hipa.hu/en
www.tradehouse.hu/en

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Exporting to Finland

FINLAND
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
5,268,799 119
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$195.5 billion 58
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$35,900 38

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Being a part of the global market allows for many trade opportunities within the country of Finland. As a member of the European Union, Finland has a welcoming business environment.

Finland is also a part of the Nordic countries, which includes Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Together these countries offer diversified trade markets. Different market entry strategies, such as working with a local partner or distributor, are available, as well as local trade associations and trade fairs. Finnish consumers expect quality products, which can make for competitive markets.

Relationships are key both socially and within the business community. Those in Finland prefer to know who they are doing business with, so it’s important to establish positive relationships first.

To assist with learning more about market entry strategies, doing business in Finland, and import/export requirements, various resources are available. Among them are the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in northern Europe, Finland joined the European Union in 1995. Finland has two official languages. One of them is Finnish, which is spoken by the majority of the people, and the other is Swedish. While not an official language, English is also widely spoken.

In Finland, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Finland:
www.export.gov/finland
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Ireland

IRELAND
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
4,832,765 123
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$190.4 billion 59
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$41,300 25

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

An open and growing economy helps to create a pro-business climate in the country of Ireland. A member of the European Union, Ireland is also a key part of the international market.

Due to its location, Ireland can also be a gateway to Europe and other regions. For small to medium size businesses that are looking to export for the first time in the EU, Ireland can be a good, potential market. Choosing a local partner or setting up a local sales office are among suggested market entry strategies. It is recommended to visit Ireland in person to help establish a positive business relationship. Within the country, one resource for assistance in starting a business is the Irish Citizens Information Board.

For a company to increase its prospects for success, it’s important to learn what the Irish business customs are. Learn what is acceptable when greeting others along with the accepted business attire. Friendship and mutual trust are key elements to developing a good business association, along with courtesy and punctuality. Schedule business meetings in advance and promptly reply to sales requests. Have business cards readily available for distribution.

There are a variety of resources which can give more details regarding market entry strategies, doing business in Ireland, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Northern Europe, Ireland joined the European Union in 1973. The two official languages in Ireland are Irish and English. While English is the language usually used in business, it is advised to define any terms that have the potential to be misinterpreted, in order to ensure that all information is understood correctly.

In Ireland, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the United Kingdom plug.

Sources for Ireland:
www.export.gov/ireland
www.gov.uk
www.citizensinformation.ie/en

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Exporting to Slovakia    

SLOVAKIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
5,443,583 117
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$133.4 billion 66
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$24,700 61

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As a member of the European Union and a part of the Central and East European market, Slovakia offers promising trade opportunities.

Market entry strategies include finding a local agent or distributor or setting up a branch office. Visit Slovakia personally to determine potential markets within the country. It is recommended to check with global trade specialists such as the United States Commercial Service or the United Kingdom Trade and Investment for assistance at the beginning of the process. Market research and due diligence are essential to conduct.

Knowing acceptable business practices and etiquette will help to enhance a company’s success. It is important to first develop positive relationships in order to do business in Slovakia. Appointments should be made in advance and follow-up should include written summaries of the meetings.

Resources which can assist in learning more about market entry strategies, doing business in Slovakia, and business customs include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Eastern Europe, Slovakia joined the European Union in 2004. Slovak is the official language, but English, German, Czech, Russian, and Hungarian are also spoken. It is recommended to use quality interpreters in meetings to help decrease potential misinterpretations.

In Slovakia, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug with a French/Belgian socket.

Sources for Slovakia:
www.export.gov/slovakia
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Bulgaria

BULGARIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
6,924,716 103
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$104.6 billion 74
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$14,400 93

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

A relatively recent member of the European Union, Bulgaria is one of the smaller countries in Europe. As a part of the Central and Eastern European market, it offers prospective trade opportunities.

Conducting market research and due diligence are essential to doing business in Bulgaria. While the business environment can be positive, there may be challenges. Market entry strategies include finding a local partner with established business connections or setting up a local office. Retaining a qualified legal counsel is also advised.

Knowledge of Bulgarian business customs will help to enhance a company’s chance for success. For example, in addition to conducting business, meetings are also used an avenue to get acquainted and to establish trust. It is crucial to develop positive relationships when doing business in Bulgaria.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about market entry strategies, doing business in Bulgaria, business customs, and import/export requirements. These include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Eastern Europe, Bulgaria joined the European Union in 2007. A number of languages are spoken in Bulgaria, including Bulgarian, English, German, French, and Russian.

In Bulgaria, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Bulgaria:
www.export.gov/bulgaria
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Croatia

CROATIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
4,470,534 126
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$78.9 billion

84

Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$17,800 78

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

The country of Croatia recently became a member of the European Union. As it makes the transition into the EU market, prospective trade opportunities are becoming available.

Croatia is also part of the Central and Eastern European market, which can contribute to further economic prospects. Market research and due diligence are needed when entering the Croatian market. Among the market entry strategies are finding an agent or distributor within the country, due to a complex language and business climate.

Knowledge of business customs within the country is important to learn, such as acceptable business attire, what should be included on business cards, and the importance of advance appointments.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about market entry strategies, market research, and doing business in Croatia. These include the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Southern Europe, Croatia joined the European Union in 2013. Croatian is the official language, but many in the business community also speak English, German, and/or Italian.

In Croatia, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Croatia:
www.export.gov/croatia
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Lithuania

LITHUANIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
3,505,738 134
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$67.43 billion 86
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$22,600 65

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Lithuania offers trade opportunities in the global market. As a relatively recent member of the European Union, a number of economic sectors are focused on international trade.

To do business in Lithuania, one suggested market entry strategy is to find a local partner through a joint venture or a distributor. Market research and due diligence are important elements of this process. To assist with various business aspects, the Lithuanian government has a website, The Official Gateway of Lithuania, which includes information about starting a business and international trade.

Learning about the business etiquette within the country is also important. Meetings and agendas need to be made in advance and punctuality is critical. Business cards are commonly exchanged and business attire is usually conservative.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about doing business in Lithuania, business customs, and import/export requirements. Among them are the United States Commercial Service, the United Kingdom Trade and Investment, and the Lithuanian government’s website (www.lietuva.lt).

Located in Northern Europe, Lithuania joined the European Union in 2004. While Lithuanian is the official language, many in the business community also speak Russian and English.

In Lithuania, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Lithuania:
www.export.gov/lithuania
www.gov.uk
www.lietuva.lt/en

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Exporting to Slovenia

SLOVENIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
1,988,292 148
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$57.36 billion 93
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$27,400 55

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As a relatively new member of the European Union, Slovenia’s economy includes numerous trade opportunities in the international market.

Positive business relationships are highly valued and need to be established first. Finding a local partner is among suggested market entry strategies. Market research, due diligence, and seeking legal counsel are strongly advised. All agreements need to be made according to the EU and member state laws. Slovenia is also part of the Central and East European market which can potentially expand the trade network.

The business focus in Slovenia tends to be market-based. Most business decisions are made by top management and that needs to be understood when finalizing agreements.

To assist in finding out more about doing business in Slovenia, market strategies, business customs, and import/export requirements, various resources are available. Two possible sources for information are the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Southern Europe, Slovenia joined the European Union in 2004. Slovene is the official language in the country, but other languages spoken within the business community include English, German, and Italian.

In Slovenia, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Slovenia:
www.export.gov/slovenia
www.gov.uk

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Exporting to Luxembourg

LUXEMBOURG
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
520,672 174
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$42.67 billion 103
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$77,900 6

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

While Luxembourg may be small in population, it offers an excellent network to European Union and global markets. With an open and steady economy, there are numerous diversified trade opportunities.

The country focuses on being a place for business, research, and technology. While there are a number of different market entry strategies that can be used, two suggested ones include finding a local distributor or choosing a local representative to work with.

To discover more about doing business in Luxembourg, there are a variety of sources to consult, such as the United Kingdom Trade and Investment and the United States Commercial Service. There is also a resource called “Luxembourg for Business” which includes steps for setting up a business and other valuable information.

Located in Western Europe, Luxembourg joined the European Union in 1958 and was one of the original EU member countries. The three official languages are Luxembourgish, French, and German with English also being spoken.

In Luxembourg, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Luxembourg:
www.gov.uk
www.luxembourgforbusiness.lu/en
www.export.gov

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Exporting to Latvia

LATVIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
2,165,165 144
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$38.87 billion 109
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$19,100 74

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

As a relatively recent member of the European Union, Latvia is considered one of the fastest growing economies within the EU. It offers good trade opportunities in various markets and can also be an access link to other markets, such as in the Baltic region.

While a variety of market entry strategies exist, finding a local partner is common. When making any agreement, it is essential to ensure that it follows the EU and member state laws. It is also suggested to visit the country in person.

Knowing accepted business customs within the country can help enhance a company’s success. A high value is placed on personal business relationships. Learn what is considered acceptable business etiquette.

To learn more about doing business in Latvia, there are a variety of resources to consult. These include the Latvian Institute, the United States Commercial Service, and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Northern Europe, Latvia joined the European Union in 2004. While Latvian is the official language, Russian is also commonly spoken and English is generally accepted in the business community.

In Latvia, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Latvia:
www.export.gov/latvia
www.gov.uk
www.latvia.eu

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Exporting to Estonia

ESTONIA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
1,257,921 158
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$29.94 billion 114
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$22,400 66

*See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

The country of Estonia joined the European Union a few years ago and offers numerous trade opportunities. It can also be a gateway to markets between the East and West.

There are different ways a company can choose to enter the market, such as finding a local partner or setting up a branch office. Conducting market research and due diligence are also advised. Visiting the country in person will help to establish personal connections which are important when doing business in Estonia.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about doing business in Estonia. These include the United States Commercial Service, the United Kingdom Trade and Investment, and a public sector service called Trade with Estonia.

Located in Northern Europe, Estonia joined the European Union in 2004. While the official language is Estonian, Russian and English are also widely spoken.

In Estonia, the voltage used is 220-230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the Continental European plug.

Sources for Estonia:
www.export.gov/estonia
www.gov.uk
www.tradewithestonia.com

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Exporting to Cyprus

CYPRUS
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
1,172,458 161
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$21.62 billion 130
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$24,500 62

 *See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

Cyprus is a relatively new member of the European Union. Presently it is a politically divided island with the Republic of Cyprus having control in the south and Turkish forces controlling the north. Even though there are trade challenges, there are also potential business opportunities in the government-controlled area for companies looking to export to Cyprus.

Market entry strategies depend on the type of product. One suggestion is to find a local partner who has an established business network and distribution system. All agreements need to meet the EU and member state laws.

To find out more about doing business in Cyprus, there are a number of resources available. Among them are the United States Commercial Service, the United Kingdom Trade and Investment, and through a web portal of the Republic of Cyprus.

Located in Southern Europe, Cyprus joined the European Union in 2004. Greek, Turkish, and English are the official languages, with English being considered the preferred language within the business community.

In Cyprus, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the United Kingdom plug.

Sources for Cyprus:
www.export.gov
www.gov.uk
www.cyprus.gov.cy

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Exporting to Malta

MALTA
Actual Population* Population World Ranking
412,655 176
Actual GDP (PPP)* GDP World Ranking
$11.22 billion 153
Actual GDP (per capita)* GDP (per capita) World Ranking
$29,200 52

 *See the end of this white paper for definitions and an overall country comparison

An archipelago of islands, Malta is one of the smallest countries in the world. As a member of the European Union, various trade opportunities are available. Malta can also be an access link to other markets, such as Southern Europe and Northern Africa.

While there are a number of different market entry strategies that can be used, finding a local partner or distributor with an established business network is one recommendation. It’s important to note that all agreements made need to follow the EU and member state laws.

Knowledge of business etiquette can contribute to a company’s success. Respond promptly to business correspondence, make advance appointments, and be on time for meetings.

There are a variety of resources which can assist in learning more about doing business in Malta, including the United States Commercial Service and the United Kingdom Trade and Investment.

Located in Southern Europe, Malta joined the European Union in 2004. The official languages in Malta are Maltese and English, with English being considered the business language.

In Malta, the voltage used is 230V at 50Hz. The most frequently specified plug pattern is the United Kingdom plug.

Sources for Malta:
www.export.gov
www.gov.uk

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Conclusion

Doing business in a worldwide market can offer excellent business opportunities. While market research is needed, exporting to countries in the European Union can assist in enhancing a company’s global market base.

Sources:
European Union—http://europa.eu
European Commission—http://ec.europa.eu
REACH—http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/chemicals/reach/index_en.htm
ECHA—http://echa.europa.eu
RoHS—www.rohsguide.com
WEEE—http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/weee/index_en.htm
CE mark—http://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/ce-marking
European Commission Export Helpdesk—http://exporthelp.europa.eu
European Commission Taxation and Customs Union—http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs
United States Commercial Service—www.export.gov/europeanunion
United Kingdom Trade and Investment—www.gov.uk/eu-eea

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Population and GDP Chart Definitions:

Country Comparison—Population: Population compares estimates from the U.S. Bureau of Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics, registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. (July 2014 est.)

Country Comparison—GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): GDP (PPP–Purchasing Power Parity) compares the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation’s GDP at PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. (2013 est.)

Country Comparison—GDP – per capita (PPP): GDP – per capita (PPP) compares GDP on a purchasing parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. (2013 est.)

Source:
www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html

Comparison of all EU Countries Mentioned in this Paper

World comparison rankings by population, actual GDP, and actual GDP (per capita)

World Comparison by Population

Country Population Ranking Actual Population
Germany 18 80,996,685
France 22 66,259,012
United Kingdom 23 63,742,977
Italy 24 61,680,122
Spain 29 47,737,941
Poland 35 38,346,279
Romania 58 21,729,871
Netherlands 66 16,877,351
Portugal 80 10,813,834
Greece

81 10,775,557
Czech Republic 83 10,627,448
Belgium 84 10,449,361
Hungary 90 9,919,128
Sweden 91 9,723,809
Austria 95 8,223,062
Bulgaria 103 6,924,716
Denmark 115 5,569,077
Slovakia 117 5,443,583
Finland 119 5,268,799
Ireland 123 4,832,765
Croatia 126 4,470,534
Lithuania 134 3,505,738
Latvia 144 2,165,165
Slovenia 148 1,988,292
Estonia 158 1,257,921
Cyprus 161 1,172,458
Luxembourg 174 520,672
Malta 176 412,655

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World Comparison by Actual GDP

Country GDP Ranking Actual GDP (PPP)
Germany 6 $3.227 trillion
United Kingdom 9 $2.387 trillion
France 10 $2.276 trillion
Italy 12 $1.805 trillion
Spain 15 $1.389 trillion
Poland 22 $814 billion
Netherlands 24 $699.7 billion
Belgium 33 $421.7 billion
Sweden 35 $393.8 billion
Austria 38 $361 billion
Romania 45 $288.5 billion
Czech Republic 46 $285.6 billion
Greece 51 $267.1 billion
Portugal 54 $243.3 billion
Denmark 55 $211.3 billion
Hungary 57 $196.6 billion
Finland 58 $195.5 billion
Ireland 59 $190.4 billion
Slovakia 66 $133.4 billion
Bulgaria 74 $104.6 billion
Croatia 84 $78.9 billion
Lithuania 86 $67.43 billion
Slovenia 93 $57.36 billion
Luxembourg 103 $42.67 billion
Latvia 109 $38.87 billion
Estonia 114 $29.94 billion
Cyprus 130 $21.62 billion
Malta 153 $11.22 billion

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World Comparison by Actual GDP (Per Capita)

Country GDP (Per Capita) Ranking Actual GDP (Per Capita)
Luxembourg 6 $77,900
Netherlands 18 $43,300
Austria 22 $42,600
Ireland 25 $41,300
Sweden 26 $40,900
Germany 29 $39,500
Belgium 31 $37,800
Denmark 32 $37,800

United Kingdom 34 $37,300
Finland 38 $35,900
France 39 $35,700
Spain 47 $30,100
Italy 51 $29,600
Malta 52 $29,200
Slovenia 55 $27,400
Czech Republic 56 $26,300
Slovakia 61 $24,700
Cyprus 62 $24,500
Greece 63 $23,600
Portugal 64 $22,900
Lithuania 65 $22,600
Estonia 66 $22,400
Poland 69 $21,100
Hungary 71 $19,800
Latvia 74 $19,100
Croatia 78 $17,800
Bulgaria 93 $14,400
Romania 94 $14,400

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